Today we tell in our section about some things french cuisine. It is about the sights as recipes of these dishes, we unfortunately can not lead. There are not many secrets left in modern France, but the secrets of cooking some dishes are as much a mystery as cryogenic rocket engines frantsusskoy. Therefore, they are not just food – they are just points of interest with what is known, can be found only on their location. But their similarity (to the extent they are correct – this is a special issue), you can find at either end of the world where there are French restaurants.
Before we present to you these goodies, we would like to draw your attention to how their success is born: sometimes it was a matter of chance, as with reymsskimi biscuits, or even negligence, as was the case with kombreyskimi candy, but most of the inventors have shown themselves treats these entrepreneurs, and good traders. In any case, they did not forget to register their <open> and obtain the appropriate license!
Do you remember how in the novel "The holiday, which is always with you," Hemingway, Fitzgerald went to the travel and passing Bresse, the first thing poulard orders for dinner? What is so famous for the local chickens, that the glory thunders across France? First of all, by the chickens. This breed at least 5,000 years, and it is grown in a special way: in freedom, in particular herbs on selected grain.
The trademark is protected by law in 1957: white chickens with blue feet and red comb, each must wear a ring with the name and address of the manufacturer, tri-color on the neck strap, and print. They were sold in the sewn linen shirt.
Cooked in creamy butter sauce, well, that relates to exactly how they prepare – it's a secret to be stored for centuries. To try bresskuyu poulard, you need to go to La Bresse.
According to one legend, these ducks, king of the Netherlands gave the Dutch sailors who settled in the Vendee marshes. Mosquitoes in those marshes were legion, and the duck was originally intended for mosquito control. According to another legend, the Spanish sailors trapped on the Vendee coast, crossed with a wild duck home. What kind of duck is this? And this is a canard that before selling, inspect and mark a special label. Like gold, for example.
The label means shalanskoy duck Strict compliance with these rules.
First, separate growing Utitsa and drakes. Second, an extensive utyatnik with a thick litter. Third, walking the required daily in the calculation, 2.5 meters for Utitsa and 4 meters for the drake. Fourth, the feed containing at least 75% of grain grown for 77 days for Utitsa and 84 days – for the drakes.
And finally (get ready, does not sound very aesthetically pleasing) way to kill a duck before cooking: the duck is left to bleed, and then strangled. Fried served with blood and guts.
Venison pâté baked in pastry. Interesting combination. French gastronomes love to explore the historical and philosophical roots of their dishes. In this case, the roots, in their opinion, are as follows.
Cork from the test, according to them, is natural for Chartres, which is literally surrounded by wheat fields. As for the pastry, then all its roots go back to antiquity. Historians tell us that the people of Chartres during the invasion of Attila decided to appease the invaders met them with bread and salt … excuse me, a giant rabbit pate. Great was the idea, as the soldiers, after having gorged itself, so osoloveli that left the city intact. Indeed, once confirmed by the proverb: "The way to a man's heart is through his stomach!"
Pate appeared already in the 1804 Almanac of delicacies. Today it is cooked the same way as in the past century: the meat of wild duck, with giblets mixed with brandy, with the addition of nutmeg, baked in fresh dough. Duck meat can be replaced with veal and pork, even in the modern version.
Riet – a kind of paste, not passed through a meat grinder, with the fibers and pieces of meat. Honore de Balzac, a native of the city of Tours, recalled in his memoirs as a child during a stay in a hostel, he and his peers ate myself Rieti, spreading it on fresh bread. Riet was born from the plains of the Loire.
Wide thank Riet started it. In the 19th century there was a railway line, soedinyavschaya Paris and Brittany. She passed through the town of Maine. In this town lived a certain Albert Lewis, a butcher with an entrepreneurial streak. First, given rasprobovat Riet train driver, and then began to sell to passengers in tin cans. So Riet went to Paris and became famous in the capital. Another commercial success Riet shall Jules Bordeaux, who began to fill jars with paraffin Rieti for the longer-term conservation, as it already did with the honey. Together with his wife Anna Senel, they organized the first major manufacturer of Rieti.
Incidentally, the recipe we have Rieti. Only you will need patience. Take a piece of fat meat, cook it in its own fat. Then cut into pieces and cook in a little water over low heat in a cast iron pot, add the fat and bones, as well as salt and pepper. When the oil rises to the surface, crush the chunks of meat with a fork, stir everything with a wooden spoon. Lay the finished jars in cardboard Riet and close.
Truffles from Trikastana
"Black Diamond" – so call them in France. In 1865, the vineyards around Grignan, were killed by phylloxera. In their place planted truffle oaks. In 1895, the annual amount collected truffles was already 2000 tons. The record was recorded in 1997: 100 tons – was a rainy year. What is the secret of all truffles? In sandy soil? Truffles are like air, warm and windy climate.
Trikastan not the only place where truffles grow, there are other breeds: Burgundy, white Piedmont (but it is in Italy), the cheapest – from Saint-Jean. But the best truffles grow in the Perigord. They were collected by specially trained dogs, mongrels. Hunters in the truffles stand at 5 am and the dog on a leash and sent to <shoot>. The best of them collect up to 2 kg per day. Price per kilo of truffles several thousand francs.
Alsace, the former is always a matter of dispute between France and Germany, retains many of the German tradition. Generally speaking, cabbage with sausage Germans have always loved. Not everyone is aware, however, that salted cabbage – comes from China. According to legend, the builders of the Great Wall of China ate salted cabbage, which gave them strength and prevents scurvy. Indeed, salted cabbage contains a lot of vitamin C and rich in iron.
Attached after the First World War in France, Alsace keeps its roots, but trivial, and evolved a simple dish in the French manner. Today shukrut still being prepared on the basis of salted cabbage, but it is added to the potatoes, several kinds of sausages and hot dogs, ham, etc. There is even a fish and Moroccan shukrut with mergezami. It is used either with beer or white wine, too, Alsatian origin.
Collect the cabbage begins in September, salted in the proportion of 2.5% by weight of salt in the raw form, is left in the sealed autoclave for a period of 15 days to 8 weeks. Supplements can be very different: spices, onions, thyme, white wine and so on.
Just right … move on to dessert. How about a sweet, eh?
France has a lot of delicious sweets menu. On many of them, we almost completely shifted to <sneakers> and everyone there <Hershey's> not something that is not never heard, and did not even suspect that this is yummy in the world. So let's find out!
Anise, orange and lemon, add the honey to it and imagine the taste of cakes, which were known in ancient times: they have baked the Chinese. From the Chinese got to stick to the Arabs, but from the Arabs to Crusaders. In Burgundy it is mentioned in the 14th century. His adored Margarita Flemish. But now begins the production of carrots in the 18th century in Dijon. In the book trade in 1711 in Dijon gingerbread already registered dealer on the street of St. Nicolas. In 1911, Dijon has over 12 manufacturers of gingerbread, producing 3 tons per day!
Today, manufacturing methods remain the same, but new additions: candied fruit, black currant, and others. The recipe for the holding, of course, in secret, but in principle it is that mix the flour and mead, rolls the dough for 10 minutes and allowed to "rest." During this time, add anise or lemon or orange. The dough can be used fresh for 4 days and still remains a rest for 2 weeks. It depends on the type of carrot. Then the dough is put into the form. Baking can last from 10 minutes to 2 hours.
Gingerbread pours sugar icing or decorated with candied fruit. Done!
Reed from Annecy
City of Lake Annecy, surrounded by mountains, is famous for its hospitable terraced cafes and pastry shops. This is a beautiful and wealthy resort, only a few cool, so there is always the way a cup of hot chocolate or coffee – well, and something sweet to her. In 1924, the confectioner Pierre Laurent was born in Ardèche who learned the skill in Lyon, Annecy, and settling down in the first produces "reed." He patented his pastry and then passes it to his son and then his nephew.
What is it? Brewed with the addition of sugar, coffee. He was then put in half-mold 8 cm long, and rolled in for the hard starch. Sugar and coffee are of different density, so the coffee stays inside the sugar shell, forming a capsule. The capsules are long polish brush, then coated with chocolate granules. Just do not think it's so simple: you have 24 hours to make a reed.
It's almost jeweler's work. Sugar crystallizes together with coffee, you need 12 hours to harden reed. Today, it produces a well-known institution in 1200 kamyshinok per hour. They are filled with not only coffee, but the raspberry liqueurs, cordials, and balms. Exports to the United States, Australia, Norway and Japan.
Candied violets from Toulouse
Why, of Toulouse? Because violet is the flower emblem of Toulouse. In the spring the city is surrounded by fields of violets. Pink City in the purple dress! Where it takes its name violet? On behalf of his beloved Io, Jupiter: another 400 years before our era afintsy sold a bunch of violets in the streets and gave them to his girls. In the Middle Ages flower vase decorated with violets and flower beds. It quickly became a symbol of violet seduction and flirting.
Following the fashion, the kings of France used the powder and smothered with a smell of violets. When Louis XIV violets begin to grow in mass quantities – just wild violets fees is not enough.
In Paris during the Revolution saleswoman violets are taxed and regulated sales of violets, which means that trade flourished.
Violet goes to Toulouse in the knapsack soldier of Napoleon's army, which brought it into the pot as a gift to his bride. Violet survives well in Toulouse, creating breeding violets Society, whose patron is the Empress Eugenia. Toulouse became the center of breeding violets in France, as well as the mass of its exports to Europe.
In the late 19th century Toulouse Confectioners begin production of the violet candies. The idea belongs to M. zasaharivaniya Volyu violets, confectionary which was a great success in 1900.
At present, all the most famous pastry in the world – from Paris and London to Sydney and Tokyo – buy candied violets in Toulouse for the decoration of cakes and ice cream. The current generation of Toulouse-known confectioners also contributes. Thus, the spoils of Toulouse Toulouse, Dominique sweets vanilla soufflé with violets, violet fruit ice cream! Here you will find a jam of violets.
The ones that are served with champagne, light and crunchy pink sticks with flavors of vanilla, the same air, just as the champagne, which is the capital – also Reims. They say they were born as follows: in the 17th century a Reims baker-confectioner came up with additional oven biscuits, using the heat of the oven after the last day of baking bread.
Reims – the city where the kings of France were crowned. Therefore, also called biscuits. The composition of the test is not complicated: flour, egg whites, sugar – and the centuries-old skill of a double baked at low temperature. Currently, they are trained with numerous additions: coconut, almonds, etc. Dip-stick fingers, filled with air, foaming champagne! The feeling of the holiday is guaranteed!
Anise peas from Flavin
A tiny, dazzling white pea, storing fresh anise. We are at the heart of Burgundy, around Alesia, in the village of Flavin in the old Abbey. Like anise appeared in these parts? During the Battle of Alesia Caesar and his army between the Gauls, in the village of Flavin was a Roman hospital, and the Roman physician has sown seeds of anise, which the Romans used for medicinal purposes. As a confection anise has been known to 1592, gave his dear guests in Semur-en-Auxois. But his real fame began in 1632, when the Ursuline, who settled in Flavin, under the leadership of Superior Claudine Jacotot, developed this recipe: ie Anise seed is covered with several layers of sugar and dried, then added essence of orange flower or rose.
The company, which produces anise peas, has seen a lot in his lifetime. It was nationalized during the French Revolution, and then purchased by Gallimard family, then overbought dynasty Pipe, which is its current owner. Pipe Jean was the first to sell anise peas, wrapped in beautiful Aluminium boxes, machines on the platforms of train stations.
- Anise peas gained international fame: think of the Miss Marple novels by Agatha Christie, who never parted with a tiny box. Today, anise beans make for every taste: mint, vanilla, jasmine, tangerine and even coffee. Nearly 30 percent of the 250 tons is exported.
- Keksiki cinnamon from Bordeaux
These cakes were born under the skillful hands of the nuns, who were trying to brighten up the bland and unassuming life of the poor parishioners. They economized on everything, so the collected remnants of flour in the holds of ships coming and prepared cakes and gave the money to charity.
Cake is not difficult (flour, butter and sugar), so to make it more attractive, had to contrive: the dough was placed in a ready-made bronze molds (like little Easter), sprinkled with cinnamon inside.
In the process of baking sugar caramel is welded to the surface, leaving it shiny and smooth, the dough remains soft, butter flavored taste. That's it. It only remains to add that Bordeaux is famous for its wine, which is perfect for this dessert, not too refined, but, of course, the only of its kind!
Bergamot from Nancy
He was brought to Nancy King of Sicily. Bergamot – a fruit tree – polugrusha, polulimon – with the smell of citrus. According to legend, bergamot – a hybrid of pear grafted with a sprig of lemon.
In 1850 a friend of Jean-Liliha, confectioner, filed last brilliant idea – to use bergamot essence to prepare varieties of candy. The fact that the Bergamot pure inedible. But if you add the sugar syrup in essence, turn out very soft candy. Real fame came to bergamot during the international fair in Nancy in 1909.
Recipe for simple, but to get the candy in the form of transparent thin plates need to present skills and decades of experience!
Kalissony of Aix
Similar to the leaves of birch pechenitsa light-filled pieces of almonds and candied fruits (melons, or peaches, or apricots), and drenched with icing – that's what kalisson. You imagine the south of France, summer heat. Light cafe tables under the shade of plane trees. Melt ice cubes in a glass of water. Strong coffee in a tiny cup. In a small dish – kalissony. Now imagine?
Callison is this recipe: almonds are ground and mixed with candied fruits (like jelly), about an hour to obtain a homogeneous dough. Then, in the folded form, cook for a couple for an hour. The resulting leaves rolled in rice flour and pour glaze.