people engaged in animal husbandry, they had to think about how to keep milk
the long term. And from yogurt and cottage cheese before – one step.
However, it is very important. Cheeses made everywhere except the Far North and
hot tropics. And every country is famous for its achievements.
Haprimer, in Italy it is "gorgontsola", "parmidzhiano" and "mozzarella", in
Holland – "Adam," all sorts of varieties of "Gouda", "mimolett" in England
- "Cheshire" in Greek – "feta." All transfer is impossible.
What to say about France, the true country of cheese, where only
registered, that is officially authorized to sell (and there
still a lot of home) – More than 300 varieties. For France, the cheese – it is
an integral part of its history and culture, comparable perhaps only to
wine, literature and philosophy. Therefore, cheese-making official
supported by the state, falsification of cheese are strictly punished, and
promotion of French cheeses to foreign markets is not considered
only as an economic factor but also as an extension of the French
culture. However, there are difficulties with the latter. Most of these
French cheese made from unpasteurized milk, so
Americans are afraid of death any Forest infection (especially overseas),
still prohibit the sale to the general French cheeses to the "Homeland
Merry King Henry IV sent as a gift of love
its many cheeses passion. Hapoleon Bonaparte, apparently,
so fond of cheese, that he had asked his wife, Josephine de Beauharnais, not
much of a wash before he would return from the Egyptian campaign. A
cunning Talleyrand consistently changed the three regimes, cheese
remained loyal: selling winners France in the Congress of Vienna, he
however, came into violent dispute with the Austrian Chancellor
Metternich, and still convinced him that any Austrian, German and, of
moreover, the Russian cheeses can not be called and those close to the brie,
Camembert and Roquefort.
So, take an incredible attempt to describe the almost infinite
the universe of French cheeses.
All of them are divided into five "families" (it should, however, take into account
that are intermediate between the families of creation). The first "family" -
a cheese with "fresh flesh" (pates fraiches). The second – "melted"
(Pates fondues). The third – the "cooked flesh" (pates cuites).
Fourth – cheese with a "soft flesh" (pates molles). The fifth "family" -
to "mold" (pates persillees).
Cheese made from cow's, goat's and sheep's milk, but there are
and prepared from mixtures of various proportions. The quality of cheese depends on the
cooking traditions, climate, animal breeds and food, which they
eat. Therefore, to make the same cheese in another place it is simply impossible.
Camembert can only be Norman, brie occur only
Ile-de-France (region around Paris), Cantal – Auvergne from, and con -
of Franche Comte, the French Alps. So read carefully
Also, if you're hitting France, want to try
really good cheese (in other countries, too, are sold
French cheeses, but 99% of cases it is not), do not buy them
supermarkets. Better – in specialized "fromageries", especially
those on the doors are marked "fromageur affineur" (which means
that the owner not only sells well-chosen cheeses, but also owns
the art of "bring" them). It will cost you more, but you will
guarantee that you buy this "fromage fermier" -
peasants, not industrial. In addition, syrotorgovets sell
you are the cheese in perfect condition for use, with pleasure
advise what is the best cheese of the month, as it is to serve and
what wine to accompany.
By the way, usually in a good cheese shops and plentiful wine
basement. At last, as in all areas of French cheeses are different,
good selection of cheeses will allow you, for some the gift of imagination,
make a gourmet journey from the damp green fields Hormandii
through the high mountain valleys of Savoie and Jura to the going down to the azure sea
the hills of Provence.
Now – some of the most common and characteristic
representatives of the "five families".
Camembert (Camembert). Hormandii comes from the best – of
Department of Pays d'Auge. Perhaps the most "popular" French cheese that
prevents it from being quite sophisticated. It belongs to the family of "soft".
Made from raw cow's milk. It has a white wrinkled crust
lightly speckled reddish spots and cream-colored elastic
pulp, which in any case should not be dried. Round,
diameter of 15 – 20 inches, sold usually in plywood
Brie (Brie). There are several varieties – Brie de Coulomiers,
Brie de Meaux, de Melun. At last, just Coulumiers. Comes from
Ile-de-France. "Soft" is made from cow's milk, raw.
It is a cake 30 – 60 centimeters in diameter and thickness
3 – 5 inches, a little "fluffy" and reddish rind, under
which is cream-colored soft, almost fluid mass.
This cheese has been known in Russia as early as the time of Pushkin, and was called
"Living cheese" – precisely because of the consistency of the mass, which is so
Tender, which should flow, but for some reason does not. The then
- leaven Patriots called him "maggoty" complete nonsense and that the
- evidence of their inability to distinguish between God's gift of a piece of cake.
Muenster (Munster). Born in Alsace, too "soft." Is
from cow's milk. Round, with a diameter of about 30 centimeters, with
brownish elastic crust and a soft, yellowish flesh. One of the
most acute, "stinky" cheeses. A careful perception of smell,
however, turns into a fragrance. It's like in Polish: "wona" means
Fondue for Raza (Fondu au raisin). The representative of a fairly
a small "melting" of the family of traditional French cheeses.
Hebolshogo size, with a thin light crust, and yellow, soft, but
surprisingly thin elastic flesh, "fruity" taste. In the crust and
sometimes in the flesh interspersed juicy raisins.
Comte (Comte). It comes from the Jura mountains, glorious, so
not only blunt toothed reptiles three-storey development. One of the most
Representatives of the glorious cheese "Gruyere", better known in our
under the name "Swiss cheese". There also are Emmental and Beaufort.
Good Conte, however, surpasses them all, and fruity taste, and
amazing amber color, and quality of the hole – the size of a walnut
nut. Speaking of "fruitiness": cheese factories in the Alps, not without reason called
"Fruiteries" – cheeses from this region actually differ in some
amazing fruit and nutty flavor not found anywhere else.
Conte refers, of course, to the "cooked" and is made from cheese
red alpine milk the cows, fed on mountain meadows.
Kankuayott (Cancoillotte). Also "cooked", also from the Franche-Comte.
Interesting because it is made from milk with the addition of white wine and
oil, one of the most low-fat varieties. It has a yellow myakostyu
greenish tint, and is used in a heated, in the mouth begin to
flickering images of green valleys dotted with flowers and a framed
Now, a few cheeses that are not in the "five families", but without
cheese which life is impossible.
Hante (Nantais). Made from cow's milk, comes from
Brittany. To make it, apply the process of "pressing".
It has a smooth yellow rind and soft pulp mazeobraznoy very
soft – albeit with a rather pungent smell – taste. The same type
rebloshon cheese and September-nectar.
The same "pressed" Cheese – Cantal (Cantal). This is – the product
Auvergne, in the old days one of the poorest and most backward regions of France,
where, except for the mountains, sheep, cows and small vineyards, nothing
was. However, the poor overnyaty in the Middle Ages, for lack of bread
fed on chestnuts and hunted drovosechestvom, later became
legislators culinary fashion in France. And now their cheese
intended for long storage, has become a necessary part of
French gastronomy. This is – a solid, no holes, with a dark yellow
pulp cheese, salty, spicy and surprisingly tasty.
Now about the "fresh" cheese. Most of them come from
obalstey southern countries and are often made from sheep's or goat's milk:
on the dry hills of the Mediterranean to feed the cows is not easy.
Brochchio (Broccio) – Corsican. Made from heated and
whipped unsalted sheep's milk. Hemnogo like cheese or
mozzarella, but much softer. Unfortunately, can not be stored for a long time.
Goat and sheep milk is made, and many famous
"Soft" cheeses. Here are some of them.
SHABEESH (Chabichou). Goat cheese is cylindrical in shape, small
size comes from the Poitou. He has enough hard pulp and
slightly moldy crust. Growing up, it dries and becomes slightly
very thin, tangy flavor.
Valyanse (Valencay). Goat cheese, too, from the vicinity of the city
Valyans, territories, where I came from Rabelais. He – a pyramid-shaped, with white
acute pulp and crust, sprinkled with ashes. In general, the cheeses in the
ash are quite common: ash not only protects the cheese from
premature aging, but also makes eating cheese acute senses,
troubled by the thought of the impermanence of things.
Banon (Banon) prigotavlyaemy from sheep's milk. Small,
dense, rounded, harsh, and tangy, with all its
softness – in general, this Provencal. Sale gently
wrapped in chestnut leaves, which protects it from heat.
And finally, "Mouldy" cheeses. Yes, of course, green, blue,
blue veins – it is mold, but mold is noble, protecting
cheese and give it a unique flavor and aroma.
All, of course, know roguefort. Ho now overnsky Roquefort,
prepared from sheep's milk and aged in the natural
caves, has little to do with local imitations, or even French
ersatz in polyethylene, available in supermarkets. This cheese,
probably one of the oldest in France, must be
very soft, in any case does not fall apart in the aggregate, its crust
should be moist but not sliznevatoy. Then you will experience and
delight of the most complicated, pepper-grass flavor of this cheese.
Another "persillee" – is Bleu de Coss (Bleu des Causses),
originating from the district Rouergue in Aquitaine. Many put it, thanks
"Creaminess" of his flesh, in the category of "soft" cheeses. However, the sharpness
taste and an abundance of bright blue veins still bring it to the
aristocratic family "moldy."
And one of the most bizarre, is an amateur, cheeses, from the group
"Fourmes", all of which came from Auvergne, and from the south. These cow cheeses are
fat, have a strong bitter taste and smell of the cellar. Mold
they malachite color, and covered with a crust
brownish-red and greenish spots, just jasper. I'm sure there are
these cheeses anywhere except on the cool terrace Provence
house on a hot day with a glass of cold rose wine -
And keep silence that was not understood – about the goat and sheep cheeses
soaked in flavored olive oil, on the cheese, aged in
grape moonshine, a cheese, dried fish with. Me
Suffice it to mention earlier.
Sometimes the French eat cheese before a meal. Ho traditional "cheese
dish "(plateau des fromages) served in the late afternoon, along with
fruit, coffee and cognac in front. Cheese should be removed from the
cooler hours of 2 – 3 to feed and posted, it is desirable to
a large wooden dish. In order not to flood the apartment symphony
odors can cover up to a glass cover. The center serves
fit softer around the edges – a hard cheese. It's desirable
submit more knives to not interfere with the taste of different cheeses. And different
types of bread – the usual white, oatmeal, "the village". With some
cheeses are wonderful apples, pears, prunes and nuts.
Of course, the consumption of cheese is not limited to eating in
kind. The French know a lot of recipes for cooking
with cheese – all kinds of "fondu", blue cheese salad with a hot,
various casseroles with soft cheeses or "Gruyere", or steak with
What to drink with cheese? Contrary to established opinion, not necessarily
red wine. Often, much better is rich sweet white and
sometimes a dessert wine. And do not "snob" – served with cheese
best wine taste and a high order, and the other can be mutually
French pediatricians are advised to acquaint children with the cheeses with the
age of three months. And not to gain weight, and
to their taste buds have evolved so that they grow from infancy